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To design and verify 4 bit ripple counter mod 12 ripple counter.

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Apparatus required:-
The following electronics components are required.
·         NAND Gate (IC-7400)
·         JK Flip-Flop (IC-7476)
·         Digital IC Trainer KIT
·         Connecting wires
Description:-
A counter is a register capable of counting number of clock pulse arriving at its clock input. Counter represents the number of clock pulses arrived. A specified sequence of states appears as counter output. This is the main difference between a register and a counter.
There are two types of counter, synchronous and asynchronous. In synchronous common clock is given to all flip flop and in asynchronous first flip flop is clocked by external pulse and then each successive flip flop is clocked by Q or Q output of previous stage. A soon the clock of second stage is triggered by output of first stage. Because of inherent propagation delay time all flip flops are not activated at same time which results in asynchronous operation.   
Pin Diagram of IC-7476:-
Logic Diagram for 4 Bit Ripple Counter:
Truth-Table:
CLK
QA
QB
QC
QD
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
3
1
1
0
0
4
0
0
1
0
5
1
0
1
0
6
0
1
1
0
7
1
1
1
0
8
0
0
0
1
9
1
0
0
1
10
0
1
0
1
11
1
1
0
1
12
0
0
1
1
13
1
0
1
1
14
0
1
1
1
15
1
1
1
1
Logic Diagram for Mod-12 Ripple Counter:
Truth-Table:
CLK
QA
QB
QC
QD
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
3
1
1
0
0
4
0
0
1
0
5
1
0
1
0
6
0
1
1
0
7
1
1
1
0
8
0
0
0
1
9
1
0
0
1
10
0
1
0
1
11
1
1
0
1
12
0
0
0
0
Conclusion: - All the output verified the result of Truth Table.
Precaution in lab:-
·         All the connections should be tight and proper.
·         Handle the ICs carefully.
·         Check the connection once again before Switching on the Digital Trainer KIT.
·         Switch of the Trainer Kit after performing the Experiment.

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